Stoma là gì

It"s natural khổng lồ have a lot of questions before stoma surgery. In this section, you can start getting some answers. You’ll find information about the different types of stomas, the kind of products you’ll be using, and other related topics.

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What is a stoma?

Understanding exactly what a stoma is & how it is created is an important first step in getting lớn grips with how it might affect your daily life. Understanding what a stoma is

A stoma is the result of an operation that is meant to remove sầu disease & relieve sầu symptoms. It is an artificial opening that allows faeces or urine either from the intestine or from the urinary tract lớn pass.The stoma is created of an kết thúc of the intestine, which is brought khổng lồ the surface of your abdomen khổng lồ size the stoma (opening).

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What does a stoma look and feel like?

A stoma is usually moist & pinkish-red, và will stichồng out slightly from your abdomen.Stoma look and feel

After surgery, your stoma may be quite swollen to begin with, but will reduce in form size over time – usually after six to lớn eight weeks.No sensation, no pain

A stoma is red in colour. This is because it is a mucous membrane, just lượt thích the mucous membrane inside your mouth. There is no sensation in the stoma, so it is not at all painful to touch. The stoma can bleed a little when being cleaned, especially in the beginning, but this is quite normal, & should stop shortly afterwards.


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Understanding your digestive sầu and urinary system

A colostomy & ileostomy work within your digestive system, while a urostomy works within your urinary system. A good way to understand how your stoma works is lớn have sầu a basic knowledge of how food và drink is digested by your body toàn thân.The digestive system và urinary system

The digestive sầu system

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The stomachWhen you eat, the food travels down a long, narrow tube called the food pipe inlớn your stomach. Here, the food is churned inkhổng lồ smaller pieces and your digestive juices turn it inlớn liquid.The small bowelsThe journey continues as the contents of your stomach move inkhổng lồ the small bowel (ileum), where digestion finishes. Your body toàn thân absorbs the nutrients it needs for energy, growth & building new cells and channels theseinto the bloodstream.The large bowelWhen all nutrition has been absorbed, the remains move inkhổng lồ the large bowel (colon), where your body absorbs more fluid to lớn make the waste more solid. The muscles in your colon wall then push any waste forward into your rectum, where it passes out of your toàn thân through your anus, with the aid of the sphincter muscles, as stool.

The urinary system

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Urine is made by your kidneys & travels down two tubes called the ureters to your bladder. Urine is produced all the time, but it is stored in your bladder until you get a sense that you need to lớn urinate. The urine then passes out of your body toàn thân through the urethra.


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Three types of stoma

There are three types of stoma, each created for different purposes. Keep reading khổng lồ find out where they are typically placed & what they are for.Stoma types

The three types of stoma are: Colostomy, Ileostomy and Urostomy.

Colostomy

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In a colostomy operation, part of your colon is brought lớn the surface of your abdomen lớn form the stoma. A colostomy is usually created on the left-hand side of your abdomen. Stools in this part of the intestine are solid and, because a stoma has no muscle khổng lồ control defecation, will need to lớn be collected using a stoma pouch.There are two different types of colostomy surgery: End colostomy và loop colostomy.End colostomyIf parts of your large bowel (colon) or rectum have sầu been removed, the remaining large bowel is brought lớn the surface of the abdomen to form a stoma. An end colostomy can be temporary or permanent. The temporary solution is relevant in situations where the diseased part of the bowel has been removed and the remaining part of the bowel needs to rest before the ends are joined together. The permanent solution is chosen in situations where it is too risky or not possible to re-join the two parts of the intestine.Loop colostomyIn a loop colostomy, your bowel is lifted above skin level và held in place with a stoma rod. A cut is made on the exposed bowel loop, and the ends are then rolled down & sewn onkhổng lồ the skin. In this way, a loop stoma actually consists of two stomas (double-barrelled stoma) that are joined together. The loop colostomy is typically a temporary measure performed in adễ thương situations. It can also be carried out to protect a surgical join in the bowel.Ileostomy
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In an ileostomy operation, a part of your small bowel called the ileum is brought khổng lồ the surface of your abdomen lớn size the stoma. An ileostomy is typically made in cases where the kết thúc part of the small bowel is diseased, và is usually made on the right-h& side of your abdomen.Stools in this part of the intestine are generally fluid &, because a stoma has no muscle lớn control defecation, will need to lớn be collected in a pouch.There are two different types of ileostomy surgery:End ileostomyAn kết thúc ileostomy is made when part of your large bowel (colon) is removed (or simply needs to rest) và the end of your small bowel is brought to the surface of the abdomen to lớn form a stoma. An kết thúc ileostomy can be temporary or permanent.The temporary solution is relevant in situations where the diseased part of the bowel has been removed and the remaining part needs to lớn rest before the ends are joined together. The permanent solution is chosen in situations where it is too risky or not possible khổng lồ re-join the two parts of the intestine.Loop ileostomyIn a loop ileostomy, a loop of the small bowel is lifted above skin màn chơi and held in place with a stoma rod. A cut is made on the exposed bowel loop, & the ends are then rolled down & sewn onto the skin. In this way, a loop ileostomy actually consists of two stomas that are joined together.The loop ileostomy is typically temporary và performed khổng lồ protect a surgical join in the bowel. If temporary, it will be closed or reversed in a later operation.Urostomy

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If your bladder or urinary system is damaged or diseased & you are unable khổng lồ pass urine normally, you will need a urinary diversion. This is called a urostomy, an ileal conduit or a Bricker bladder.An isolated part of the intestine is brought onto lớn the surface of the right-hand side of your abdomen & the other kết thúc is sewn up. The ureters are detached from the bladder and reattached to lớn the isolated section of the intestine. Because this section of the intestine is too small khổng lồ function as a reservoir, & there is no muscle or valve to lớn control urination, you will need a urostomy pouch khổng lồ collect the urine.


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Wondering how your stoma might affect daily life?

It will take time to adjust lớn life with a stoma. But there’s no reason why it should stop you doing most of the things you already vì chưng, from sports to lớn socialising. Daily life with a stoma

After your stoma operation you will need some time lớn recover. This is perfectly normal, & the time needed will vary from person to person. Your stoma will change in the first weeks following surgery, in terms of both form size and output. Also, you might chiến bại or gain weight in these weeks.

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Get started with a pouchHaving a stoma means you have no control over when you defecate or, in the case of a urostomy, when you urinate. This means that you always need to lớn wear a pouch lớn collect your output.Healthy skinIn order for your pouch to lớn adhere properly, it is very important lớn keep the skin around your stoma healthy. When the pouch is attached correctly, there is no risk of smell from your stoma và less risk of skin irritation. Before you leave sầu hospital, you will be trained in how to choose and manage your stoma pouch và how to take care of your skin.What about food and drink?In general you can eat và drink as normal. Try to see how your stoma reacts lớn different foods. Your stoma care nurse, surgeon or physician will advise if you need lớn take special precautions.In general, your stoma is no hindrance khổng lồ working, socialising, playing sports, travelling or other hobbies. Your general state of health – physically as well as mentally – will play a big role in determining your quality of life as you move forward.Talk about it

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Nothing is more helpful than someone who really understands what you are going through. You are certainly not alone – the number of people with a stoma worldwide is 1.9 million. Your local Ostomy Association or patient organisation is one way of meeting peers khổng lồ get handy tips, inspiration and personal tư vấn.


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Intimacy & pregnancy with a stoma

Although a stoma can influence the way you feel about your body, it doesn’t necessarily have to lớn affect your relationship with your partner or even pregnancy. Keep reading for simple, practical advice on living with a stoma.Intimacy with a stoma

Following stoma surgery, it’s natural to lớn have sầu concerns about your body’s appearance. It can take time lớn get used khổng lồ the physical changes and you may feel less attractive as a result. Although it can be challenge, it’s important to learn khổng lồ accept it as a part of who you are.What about intimacy?Intimacy & a normal loving relationship following stoma surgery can be resumed. How and when depends on the nature of the operation you"ve had. However, impotence and/or disrealchampionshipwrestling.comfort can occur in cases where the rectum or bladder have been removed (women can also be affected by this).It’s important to talk khổng lồ your partner và try not to lớn feel self-conscious because of the operation. It’s also important to lớn talk to lớn your stoma care nurse who is used to lớn discussing the issues you’re experiencing and will be able to lớn help in many ways. There are also several handy tips & tricks for overrealchampionshipwrestling.coming everyday obstacles. For instance, adapting lace underwear so that it’s worn as a tube around your body toàn thân covering the pouch, or using mini pouches for intimate situations.Can I have sầu children?

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In a word, yes. Having a stoma does not prsự kiện a woman from carrying a baby khổng lồ term and having a normal delivery. As the belly grows, the stoma will typically just follow the changing shape of the abdomen. In the later stages of pregnancy, you might need to lớn use a mirror when changing your pouch. Delivery usually takes place as normal.Talk about itUltimately, nothing is more helpful than talking to lớn someone who really understands what you are going through. Your local patient organisation is one way of meeting peers to get handy tips, inspiration và personal support.


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Why vày I need lớn wear an ostomy pouch?

An ostomy pouch is necessary khổng lồ securely và conveniently collect the output from your stoma. How often you drain or change your pouch is dependent on whether you have a colostomy, ileostomy or urostomy.Practical information about wearing an ostomy pouch

No matter what type of ostomy you have, all the output from the stoma must be collected in a secure and convenient way. That’s where your ostomy pouch realchampionshipwrestling.comes in. Your pouch is designed khổng lồ stiông xã lớn the skin on your abdomen around your stoma and collect the output.

Secure & discreet

The type of ostomy pouch you select will depend on whether you have sầu a colostomy, ileostomy or urostomy. Your Stomal Therapy Nurse or surgeon will show you which one is right for you, but the overwhelming majority of pouches are secure & discreet. Notoàn thân will know you’re wearing one unless you decide khổng lồ tell them.

Although it can be difficult at first khổng lồ accept the fact that you will have sầu khổng lồ wear an ostomy pouch on your stomach, you should soon start to realize that it’s possible khổng lồ live much as you did before.

Changing your pouch

How often you change or empty your pouch depends on the type of stoma you have:

Colostomy: The pouch needs khổng lồ be changed between one & three times a day, depending on the amount of output.Ileostomy: The pouch needs to lớn be drained several times a day.Urostomy: The pouch needs to lớn be drained several times a day. At night, a urostomy pouch or a smaller, "micro-pouch" version can be attached khổng lồ a night bag so you don’t need lớn get up to drain your bag.

For more information on how khổng lồ manage your specific pouch, visit the animated instructions for your specific ostomy type and pouching system.


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How khổng lồ put on your ostomy pouch

Being able lớn put on your stoma pouch correctly is a crucial first step in learning to lớn care for your stoma.Applying a stoma pouch correctly

When you have a stoma, urine and stools exit directly inkhổng lồ the pouch on your abdomen. To avoid leaks, skin irritation or social embarrassment, it is very important that you learn how to seal the ostomy bag securely lớn the skin.A snug fit is keyThe guiding principle is that the adhesive sầu part of the appliance is stuchồng khổng lồ the area around the stoma & that the hole in the adhesive sầu fits snugly around the stoma.

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Your stoma care nurse will help you choose the best hàng hóa for you and show you how to apply & remove the pouch in the right way. You might also find these instructional videos helpful.


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Mogens" story

“When I first had the ostomy I was a little shocked. I only knew two people before who had an ostomy và they had both died, so I thought I would die soon as well. It made me think that I should enjoy life as long as I could. This was in 1997. Resuming my hobbies was a little difficult at first, especially swimming because of having khổng lồ walk around in the changing room và so on. But I explained lớn people that I had surgery & now nobody toàn thân, including myself, thinks about the bag anymore. Even when we’re sitting in the sauna và the bag makes a sound – we just laugh.”Mogens

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Henning"s story

“After my surgery I woke up the next morning và quickly found out that I had a bag on my stomach. I wouldn’t say I was shocked but I felt a bit peculiar. I wondered: ‘Is this going to remain there?’ When I learned that the ostomy would be for life I stopped feeling sorry for myself because I knew I had khổng lồ live sầu with it và just make the most of it. Today, I have no problems having a stoma & talk about it lớn whoever wants lớn listen. I change the bag on the golf course – even next lớn the trash bin if needed.”Henning


Chuyên mục: ĐỊNH NGHĨA